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朱元璋为茶杀驸马

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朱元璋为茶杀驸马

 

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 朱元璋为茶杀驸马

ZHU Yuanzhang Kills Son-in-low for Tea

 

 

明朝开国皇帝朱元璋(1328-1398年),出生于元末贫农之家,小时候为地主放过牛,后当过化缘和尚,受尽风餐露宿之苦,对官吏欺压百姓的事感受很深。当了皇帝后,他曾告诫百官说:“我以前在民间时,见到州县官吏多不爱民,往往贪财好色,饮酒废事。凡民疾苦,视之漠然,我心里恨透了。如今要严立法禁,官吏凡是贪污蠹害百姓的,严惩不恕!

ZHU Yuanzhang (1328-1398), First Emperor of Ming Dynasty, came from a poor farmer family in late Yuan Dynasty. When he was a child, he pastured cattle for landlord. Afterwards, he became a monk begging for alms. After standing exposure, deprivation and hunger, he had deep feeling about the situation that common people were oppressed by government officials. After he became the emperor, he warned officials of all ranks and descriptions that when he was among the folk, he found that the government officials in prefectures and counties did not love people, but kept greedy and prurient. They were indifferent to the hardships of people, so he hated them to the utmost degree. Therefore, he set laws that officials would be severely punished if they corrupted and hurt common people.

 

 

在明朝以前,饼茶和散茶并存。而今天我们常用的冲泡饮茶方法起源于明代,推广人就是朱元璋。据《万历野获编》载,明初,各地进贡茶叶都沿宋代做法,制成大小不同的团状,即所谓龙团。到洪武二十四年(1391年)九月,朱元璋认为这种做法浪费百姓的劳力下令停止龙团制作,“惟令采芽茶以进”,即直接进献芽茶。而后废蒸改炒,不断改进,炒青制法日趋完美,现代制茶工艺大多在此基础上发展起来。自然的散茶,清新淡雅,妙趣无穷。

Before Ming Dynasty, cake tea and loose tea coexisted. The tea brewing method that we usually adopt today originates from Ming Dynasty and promoter is ZHU Yuanzhang. According to Casual Literary Notes in Wanli Period, in the early of Ming Dynasty, the tribute of tea from each region followed the method in Song Dynasty, namely that the tea was made to be different shapes, which was also called as Longtuan. In September of 1391 (the 24th year of Hongwu), ZHU Yuanzhang thought that this method wasted the labor of common people, so he commanded to stop making Longtuan. On the contrary, he ordered to pay tribute of young tea leaves directly. Later, he abolished steaming and adopted frying. Through constant improvement, pan-fired production method was gradually perfect. Modern tea production craft is mostly developed on this basis. Natural loose tea is fresh and elegant with endless interest.

 

 

朱元璋的推广,开我国千年茗饮之宗,客观上把我国造茶法、品饮法推向一个新的历史时期。然而这位皇帝为了茶政的清明,甚至杀了自己的女婿。

The promotion by ZHU Yuanzhang initiated the history of drinking tea in China. Objectively, he pushed the tea production method and tea drinking way in China to a new historic period. However, he even killed his son-in-low to ensure the fairness and purity of tea policy.

 

其时西北少数民族过着逐水草而居的游牧生活,与中原汉族人民的生活习惯大不相同。他们平日吃的大都是牛肉和羊肉。牛羊肉吃多了,很需要中原的茶叶。而明朝赶走元朝蒙古统治者后,为了加强北方的边防,也很需要西北地区的战马。因此由朝廷组织了茶马互市一一用中原的茶叶交换西北的战马。茶马互市,对明朝和西北少数民族都很有利。

Actually, the minorities in the northwest regions lived nomadic life, namely that they often migrated to wherever water and grass were available, so their living habits were greatly different from those of Han people in Central Plains. They usually ate beef and mutton. After eating too much beef and mutton, they really needed tea from Central Plains. After Ming Dynasty drove away Mongolian governor of Yuan Dynasty, it also needed war horses in the northwest regions to reinforce the frontier defence in the north. Consequently, the court organized mutual trade between tea and horses, namely exchanging war horses in the northeast with tea in Central Plains. The mutual trade between tea and horses is beneficial to both Ming Dynasty and the minorities in the northwest regions. 

 

 

为了防止茶马互市出现混乱,互市一律由朝廷主持,不准私人插手。但是一些投机商人和不法官员,为了赚钱,不顾法律规定,搞起走私的勾当来。他们把茶叶偷运出境,用高价卖给少数民族,又偷运马匹入境,高价在内地贩卖。

To prevent the disorder of mutual trade between tea and horses, the trade was hosted by the court without being interfered privately. However, some speculators and illegal officials ignored legal provisions and smuggled goods to make money. They secretly transported the tea out of the country and sol them to the minorities at high price. Meanwhile, they secretly transported horses to the country and sold them in mainland at high price.

 

 

走私活动越来越厉害,朱元璋大为震怒,下了一道命令:禁止走私行为。如果有谁违反,就要从重处罚!谁不知道朱元璋的厉害?谁敢拿自己性命开玩笑?因此禁令一出,投机商人和不法官员都害怕了,不敢继续作奸犯科。只有朱元璋的女婿欧阳伦,还是继续大搞走私活动。人家偃旗息鼓,他欧阳伦却正好抓住这个时机,扩大“业务”范围,谋取更大利润。

The smuggled situation became more serious, so ZHU Yuanzhang was furious and commanded that smuggling action was prohibited. Those violating this command would be severely punished! Who do not know the severity of ZHU Yuanzhang? Who dare to play a trick of own life? Immediately after the command was released, the speculators and illegal officials were afraid and stopped violating the law. But OUYANG Lun, the son-in-law of ZHU Yuanzhang, still continued smuggled action. Others ceased all actions, so OUYANG Lun just wanted to seize this opportunity to expand business scope and make more profits.

 

 

果然禁令下达不到两个月的时间,欧阳伦就派管家周保,押了五辆满载茶叶的大车,运往兰州一带贩卖,打算将卖到的钱,换成战马带回内地。一路上,关口的官员知道是驸马的车队,谁也不敢阻拦,因此车队一直通行无阻。想不到车队快到目的地,就在兰州黄河大桥的桥头,出了“岔子”。原来负责守桥的小官,是一个忠于职守不畏强权的人。车子一到,他立即下令停车检查。他很快发现车上装的全是禁运的私茶,便将车队扣押,上报,等待处理。

As expected, when the command was released for less than two months, OUYANG Lun dispatched his steward ZHOU Bao to transport five carts of tea to sell in Lanzhou. He desired to transport war houses to mainland with earned money. Throughout the journey, all officials knew that it was transport team of emperor’s son-in-low and no one dared to impede, so the transport team went through without hindrance. Unexpectedly, when the transport team almost arrived the destination, it got into trouble on the bridge head of Yellow River Bridge in Lanzhou. The inferior officer guarding the bridge was a dedicated person being not fear of power. When the cart arrived, he promptly commanded to stop for examination. Soon, he found that the carts were full of private tea being forbidden to be transported, so he detained the transport team, submitted and waited for handling.

 

朱元璋收到奏章,得知有人公然违反禁令,贩卖私茶。仔细看,违反禁令的不是别人,竟是自己的女婿欧阳伦。他派员经过调查核实后证明奏章上说的全是真话,不免为此感到为难。依法惩办吧,欧阳伦就得杀头。他一死,自己的女儿岂不成了寡妇?命运就悲惨了。不依法惩办吧,朝廷的法规成了一纸空文,以后还有谁来秉公执法,又怎么能使全国百姓服气呢

When ZHU Yuanzhang received memorial to the emperor, he knew that someone violated the command openly and sold private tea. After seeing carefully, he found that it was his son-in-law violated the command. He dispatched official to make survey, the memorial was proved to be true, which made him feel awkward. If he punished according to law, OUYANG Lun should be decapitated. If OUYANG Lun was dead, his daughter would become widow and her fate would be miserable. If he did not punish according to law, the laws and regulations of court would be useless. Then no one would enforce laws impartially and national people would not be convinced.

 

经过一番权衡,朱元璋还是下令让欧阳伦立即自杀,并专门派出使臣赶往兰州,对那个严格执法、不畏强暴的守桥的小官进行了嘉奖。

After consideration, ZHU Yuanzhang ordered OUYANG Lun to commit suicide immediately and specially dispatched envoy to go to Lanzhou to reward the inferior officer guarding the bridge, who strictly enforced law without fearing brutal force.

 

 

大明律法素以严苛著称,朱元璋更是不论亲疏,执法如山。同时也可见茶马互市直到明朝依然是朝廷极为重视的一项国策。 

The laws in Ming Dynasty were famous for severity, and ZHU Yuanzhang enforced the law strictly despite the degree of intimacy. Besides, it could be also found that mutual trade between tea and horses was a national policy being extremely emphasized by court until Ming Dynasty. 

 

 


 

作者介绍

 

潘城,浙江嘉兴人。汉语国际推广茶文化传播基地副秘书长,浙江农林大学茶文化学院系副主任,杭州中国茶都品牌促进会副秘书长,茶空间设计师、茶艺术策展人、作家。师承茶文化学者、第五届茅盾文学奖得主王旭烽教授,致力于茶文学艺术研究、茶文化艺术呈现以及茶文化国际传播。曾主创大型茶文化舞台艺术呈现《中国茶谣》,执行导演大型茶文化话剧《六羡歌》等。赴意大利、塞尔维亚、俄罗斯等多国进行茶文化讲学与交流。

 

About author

PAN Cheng, from Jiaxing, Zhejiang. Deputy secretary general of Chinese International Promotion of Tea Culture Transmission Base, deputy director of Faculty of Tea Culture in Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, deputy secretary general of Hangzhou Tea Brand Promotion Association, tea space designer, tea art curator and writer. His master is professor WANG Xufeng, tea culture scholar and winner of The 5th Mao Dun Literature Award, who devotes to research on tea literature and tea, artistic presentation of tea culture and international spread of tea culture. He once created large-scale artistic presentation of tea culture on stage Chinese Tea Ballad and acted as director of large-scale drama of tea culture Song with Six Admirations, etc. Besides, he has gone to many countries to give lectures and make communication about tea culture, including Italy, Serbia and Russia, etc. 

 

编辑:潘一涵、欧志杰

Edit:PAN yihan、OU zhijie 

 

 

 

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